The ACDsi – The analysis of Children’s Development in Slovenia

Research project Analysis of development trends of children and youth in Slovenia (ACDSi) is a cross-sectional study, which has been running at least every 10 years, since 1970 (1983, 1993/4, 2003/4, 2013/2014, 2016/17) and is one of the oldest secular trends in research of physical fitness in the world.

ACDSi is running the leading research institution, the Faculty of Sport from University of Ljubljana. The study is based on an interdisciplinary approach that includes physical anthropology, kinesiology, psychology and sociology. The aim of the ARTOS research is to monitor secular trends in physical and motor development of children in terms of psychological, social and health factors that shape their modern lifestyles. Big database with the results of 17 different physical tests and tests of aerobic capacity, over 25 anthropometric dimensions and variables of other fields: psychology, socio-economic status, parents' opinion about physical activity, allows the variety of comparisons and links between all these variables (Jurak, Kovač & Starc, 2013). For measurements of every child, parental consent was obtained. Children participated voluntarily and anonymously with the option to freely withdraw from the measurements at any time. Data is collected in 11 elementary schools and research team is divided into 3 parts: anthropometry (measurement of physical characteristics in a separate area), kinesiology (majority of fitness tests were carried out in school gym, running (60m and 600m) were carried out outside), psychology (children solved questionnaires via the internet in the computer labs under control of one or two members of the research). Under the ACDSi study also physical activity measurements were made as a supplement of measures in 2013/14. Elementary schoolchildren from all 11 schools were measured in grade-6 (2013) and grade-9 (2016) and children from secondary school (2014) were measured in grade-1



volume of the waist (narrowest part of the abdomen) the scope of the hips (the widest part of the hips).
  • Body height
  • Body weight
  • Sitting height
  • fat mass (InBody bioimpendance)
  • age at menarha (girls only)
  • width of the shoulders (biacromial)
  • width of the pelvis (billiac
  • Širina gležnja (bimalleolar)
  • width of the knee (femur biepicondylar),
  • the width of the elbow (biepicondylar fracture)
  • the width of the wrist (lateral-medial stylion)
  • arm length (acromion-dactylion)
  • length of the feet (iliospinale
  • length of the foot
  • biceps skinfold
  • triceps skinfold
  • stomach skinfold
  • back skinfold
  • thighs (anterior) skinfold
  • skinfold of lower leg (medial)
  • volume of forearm
  • volume of the upper arm
  • volume of the thigh (gluteal)
  • volume of the thigh (middle)
  • volume of the waist (above iliac ridge)
  • volume of the waist (narrowest part of the abdomen)
  • the scope of the hips (the widest part of the hips)


  • Hand tapping2
  • standing broad jump
  • 20s situp
  • 60-s sit-up
  • polygon backwards test
  • stand and reach
  • shoulder circumduction test
  • 30-s drumming test
  • flamingo test
  • bent arm hang
  • hand grip
  • 30-m sprint run
  • 60-m sprint run
  • 600-m run test
  • 20-m multi-stage fitness test
  • resting heart rate test


  • The frequency of heart rate (rest)
  • blood pressure (Omron M6


  • Energy consumption was measured only on the subsample of three age categories (11, 14, 15 yrs) with SenseWear Armband.


  • Physical activity questionnaire (SHAPES)
  • Pictorial motivation scale in physical activity
  • Kidscreen 10
  • Peadiatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS)
  • Physical activity questionnaire (CLASS)
  • SES
  • Academic Achievement Questionnaire (AAQ).